Gingiva IIInesses

Gingiva IIInesses

Healthy Gingiva (gums)

It has an appearance showing a slightly stippled surface texture alongside a regular gingival line with the teeth while having a dull coral pink color.

What is Gingivitis?

Healthy gingiva demonstrates a dull coral pink color, high consistency, and appears like orange-peel.

If teeth are not brushed regularly and oral hygiene is not maintained, microbial plaques accumulate on the teeth. Plaque is a sticky layer including bacteria which forms on the tooth surface and inbetween the teeth.

What is Periodontitis?

Generally, periodontitis starts with gingivitis in all the cases. If proper treatment is not performed and oral hygiene is not restored, gingivitis progresses to periodontitis.

 Uncleaned calculus and plaques accumulating on the tooth surface lead to gingival inflammation (gingivitis) in time. Receding gums occurs and followed by bone destruction. This is called periodontitis.

Bone loss in a tooth leads to reduction of supportive tissues of the tooth. If untreated, this bone loss may result in tooth loss.

Symptoms of the Periodontitis:

  • Increase in pocket depth associated with the bone loss and swelling in the gums.
  • Redness and bleeding (while brushing) in gums
  • Reduction in the bone level surrounding the tooth (e.g.: bone loss)
  • Distinctive foul mouth odor
  • Pain in teeth and gums

Untreated periodontal diseases are recognized as one of the leading causes of tooth loss in the adult population.

Periodontal Surgery Steps



Demonstrates a shiny surface and swelled appearance due to edema and shows an irregular margin around the tooth. There may be a persistent pain. Bleeding occurs during brushing, eating, and probing. This inflammation leads to a foul mouth odor.

  • Causes of gingivitis:
  • Microbial dental plaque and tartar accumulation
  • Poor oral hygiene
  • Deficiency of some vitamins
  • Failure to maintain dental care due to physical inabilities
  • Some autoimmune diseases


Causes of Gingival Recession:

  • Advanced gingivitis
  • Dental plaque and tartar accumulation
  • Inaccurate application of force during brushing
  • Inaccurately restored fillings and crowns
  • General Symptoms of Gingivitis:
  • Bleeding on probing or brushing
  • Redness in gums
  • Disappearance of healthy orange-peel looks in the gums due to swelling
  • Mild pain or inconvenience in the tooth or gum
  • Receding gum
  • Foul mouth odor

Grades of Gingivitis

1-Gingivitis: Red gums, shiny and edematous appearance, disappearance of orange-peel look, bleeding on probing and brushing.

2-Periodontitis (Early stage): Redness, pain, swelling, mild pain, spontaneous hemorrhage or bleeding on brushing in the gums alongside mild foul mouth odor. Those patients demonstrate a marked accumulation of tartar and plaque.

3-Periodontitis (Developed stage):Redness, swelling, bleeding on brushing, pain in gums; foul mouth odor, receding gums and bone loss are observed. High level of tartar accumulation is present. Moreover, teeth begin to exhibit mild mobility due to excessive bone loss.

4-Periodontitis (Advanced stage): Gums begin to display a color of purple-red, spontaneous hemorrhage or bleeding on brushing, abscesses and severe foul mouth odor, receding gums, serious bone losses are present. These patients show a severe accumulation of tartars, and their teeth appear to be mobile due to excessive bone destruction which may require extraction.

Treatment of Gingivits

  • Drainage of inflammation in the gingiva
  • Complete cleaning of the surface tartars
  • Cleaning of subgingival calculus by curettage
  • Training patients on oral hygiene and correct brushing techniques
  • Vitamin and antibiotic delivery in advanced cases
  • Removal of the inflammed portions of gingiva by surgery (gingivectomy, papillectomy)
  • Restoration of the lost bone tissue via applying biomaterial or membrane into areas of bone loss.
  • Treatment of areas with gingival recession by surgical interventions such as flap operation.

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